A study by the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia showed that tenants who lost jobs during the COVID-19 pandemic may have already amassed $11 billion in rental arrears.

Procedures for evictions and foreclosures may be failing the most vulnerable tenants and landlords. As quoted in the New York Times, Davin Reed, an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, said, “What happens in housing court will miss most of the people who need help.”

A broader measure by Moody’s Analytics, which includes all delinquent renters, estimated that as of January 2021 tenants owed $53 billion in back rent, utilities, and late fees.

Other surveys show that U.S. families are increasingly pessimistic about making their next month’s rent and are cutting back on food and other essentials to pay bills.